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Plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south


Varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands


Nationality: Tanzanian(s)
Population: 49,639,138 (July 2014 est.) Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AID 
Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages


Mainland – Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar—more than 99% Muslim


Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, however, it has achieved high overall growth rates based on gold production and tourism. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a liberalized market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining. The economy depends on agriculture, accounting for more than 1/4 of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force.

Living Conditions

Most Tanzanians have little discretionary income after purchasing necessities, and perhaps buying a couple of rounds at the local pub. Living conditions for rural people are rudimentary. Malnutrition and tropical diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, and sleeping sickness are widespread. Open sewers, latrines, and uncovered garbage piles breed flies, which carry disease. In the villages, many people draw their water from contaminated streams, lakes, and pools.



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