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Mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west


Tropical to subtropical


Nationality: Mozambican(s) 
Population: 24,692,144 (July 2014 est.) Note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS 
Languages: Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)


Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)


At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate.

Living Conditions

Mozambique has not yet emerged from the heavy influence of its more than thirty-year struggle for independence. The influence of colonialism also remains in many aspects of life, including housing. "Cement town" describes European-style settlements once occupied by colonists. "Cane towns" are the African settlements that surround them. Mozambican homes are often constructed of cane and mud.



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