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Mountains and valleys


Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters, mild, rainy winters along coast


Nationality: Bosnian(s)
Population: 3,875,723 (July 2013 est.)
Languages: Bosnian (official), Croatian (official), Serbian (official)


Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 14%


Bosnia has a transitional economy with limited market reforms. The economy relies heavily on the export of metals as well as on remittances and foreign aid. A highly decentralized government hampers economic policy coordination and reform, while excessive bureaucracy and a segmented market discourage foreign investment. The interethnic warfare in Bosnia and Herzegovina caused production to plummet by 80% from 1992 to 1995 and unemployment to soar.

Living Conditions

Before the war in the 1990s, about three-fourths of village homes had electricity, and nearly all had running water. After the war began in 1992, many villages were destroyed and people were forced to leave. Cities were also hard hit. In Sarajevo, many people had no electricity or running water, and little food. Before the war, life in the big cities was quite modernized. People lived in apartments with televisions and modern appliances.


Emerging federal democratic republic

US Military Presence/Support






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