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Largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland.


Warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast.


Nationality: Georgian. Population: 4,555,911 (July 2013 est.). Language: Georgian (official) 71%, Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%


Orthodox Christian (official) 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7%


Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports nearly all its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs.

Living Conditions

When Georgia was part of the U.S.S.R. (from 1921 to 1991), people lived well, although their incomes were small. Services such as health care and education were free. Most people in cities paid very little for rent and utilities, and food was cheap. The switch to a market-based economy, which began in 1991, has been very difficult. Allowances for food and services are gone, and the state cannot afford to pay people proper salaries or pensions.



US Military Presence/Support

U.S. Government assistance to Georgia supports the consolidation of Georgia's democracy; its eventual integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions; progress toward a peacefully unified nation, security in its borders; and further development of its free-market economy.


Russia Invades Georgian Territories (2008) (2:15)



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